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CHEMStudy

The Chemical Education Material Study, better known as CHEM Study, was developed in the early 1960s at U.C. Berkeley's College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, and Harvey Mudd College, and continued at the Lawrence Hall of Science through the 1980s. The goals of CHEM Study, as set forth in the original proposal to the National Science Foundation, were:

  • (a) to diminish the current separation between scientists and teachers in the understanding of science;
  • (b) to encourage teachers to undertake further study of chemistry courses that are geared to keep pace with advancing scientific frontiers, and thereby improve their teaching methods;
  • (c) to stimulate and prepare those high school students whose purpose it is to continue the study of chemistry in college as a profession; and
  • (d) to further in those students who will not continue the study of chemistry after high school an understanding of the importance of science in current and future human activities."

-- The CHEM Study Story

This archive is meant to preserve this seminal curriculum project, and make it available to students and teachers to learn from and reuse.

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CHEM Study
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chemical education
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science education
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Sputnik-era curriculum
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CHEMStudy
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CHEM Study Films
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chem study, college of chemistry, u.c. berkeley
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chem study, college of chemistry and lawrence hall of science, u.c. berkeley
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chemical education material study
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CHEMStudy
by Chemical Education Material Study; Pimentel, George C., ed
texts
eye 6,491
favorite 3
comment 0
Bibliographical references included in "Acknowledgments" (p. xi-xii)
Topic: Chemistry
CHEMStudy
by Chemical Education Material Study; Davis, Joseph E. Jr; MacClellan, Aubrey Lester, editor
texts
eye 5,596
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Bibliografie passim
Community Video
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 4,371
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Two methods of measuring ionization energy, photo-ionization, and electron bombardment, are shown. A high vacuum system is used with a simple cell to measure electric conductivity of gases. The photo-ionization of sodium by the use of a mercury light source and a monochromator is carried out. The electron-bombardment method is then demonstrated with sodium and three noble gases. Animation shows what occurs on the atomic level during the ionization process. Ionization energy is defined as the...
Topics: CHEM Study, chemical education, science education, Sputnik-era curriculum, ionization energy
CHEMStudy
by Nicholson, Margaret; Campbell, Robert F; Davis, Joseph E., Jr; Malm, Lloyd E
texts
eye 3,691
favorite 1
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Prepared by Chemical Education Material Study; under a grant from The National Science Foundation
Topics: Chemistry, Kimya
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 2,861
favorite 2
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All animation. The film shows the relationship between the structure of a molecule and its vibrational motions. Water, carbon dioxide, and methane are discussed in detail. The forms of the vibrations have been accurately calculated from spectral data. All vibrations have been slowed down by a factor of 10^14. The effect of molecular collision, or absorption of light, on molecular vibrations is illustrated. Determination of the number of possible vibrations and the analysis of complex vibrations...
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 2,425
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comment 0
This film conveys the intense excitement and deep personal involvement of research in the stimulating context of the first synthesis of one of the inert gas compounds. An actual research problem, the first synthesis of krypton difluoride, is traced from its inspiration to the first tentative success. A train for the pyrolytic preparation of XeF4 is shown. In extreme closeup, the colorful reaction of XeF4 with water is displayed and a crystal of XeO3 is detonated by tickling with a piece of...
CHEMStudy
by Merrill, Richard J; Ridgway, David W., joint author
texts
eye 1,945
favorite 1
comment 0
Topics: Chemical Education Material Study, Chimie
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 1,731
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Proton-donor-acceptor theory is used to interpret the experimental behavior of acid-base indicators. Experiments and animation show the effects on indicators of changing acidity. Equilibrium constants of four indicators are determined and the indicators arranged in order of decreasing acid strength. The competition among bases for protons is shown by mixing the indicators and showing that each changes color at different total acidity.
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 1,432
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Professor Campbell briefly outlines the history of CHEM Study and emphasizes that the course is based on experimental evidence. Professor Pimentel discusses why the concept of combining volumes of gases is used as the principal evidence for the atomic theory when it is first introduced. He explains CHEM Study's somewhat unusual approach to quantitative problems and suggests methods of teaching chemical symbols and equations.
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 1,374
favorite 0
comment 0
The film explores the relationship between gaseous pressure and molecular collisions. The effects of varying the number of molecules per unit of volume and of varying the temperature are studied. The experimental study of the relative rates of effusion of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and sulfur hexafluoride leads to the quantitative relationship between molecular weight, molecular velocity and absolute temperature. Mechanical models illustrate the experimental observations. Collaborator:...
Community Video
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 1,354
favorite 1
comment 0
Observations are made of electric effects, including deflections of streams of liquids by a charged rod, and changes in charging time of a capacitor. There is evidence that different molecules give two types of results: some give very marked interactions with electric charges, while others give little effect. To explain these different results, a conceptual model is developed based on two types of molecules: polar and non-polar. Consideration of bond polarity and molecular shape allows...
Topics: CHEM Study, chemical education, science education, Sputnik-era curriculum, polar molecules,...
CHEMStudy
by Chemical Education Materials Study; Chemical Education Material Study
texts
eye 1,319
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comment 0
Topics: Chemistry, Chemistry, Chemistry
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 1,312
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The synthesis of 2-butanone, a ketone, from 2-butanol, an alcohol, as an example of a common type of organic synthesis. Three basic steps are developed: synthesis, purification, identification. In the synthesis, 2-butanol is oxidized by sodium dichromate and sulfuric acid to yield 2-butanone. Purification is accomplished by solvent extraction with ether followed by distillation of the 2-butanone. The identity of the product is established by infrared absorption spectroscopy and then more...
Topics: CHEM Study, chemical education, science education, Sputnik-era curriculum, organic chemistry,...
Community Video
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 1,241
favorite 1
comment 0
Observations of two spheres suspended from the terminals of a high voltage generator remind us of the principles that opposite charges attract, like charges repel, and uncharged bodies have no electric interaction. To determine quantitatively the effect of distance on electric force, a sensitive balance measures the force between two charged spheres. The distance is varied and the electric force is calculated from changes in balance readings. A graph of electric force against distance suggests...
Topics: CHEM Study, chemical education, science education, Sputnik-era curriculum, electron attraction,...
Community Video
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 1,213
favorite 0
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The relationship between gaseous pressure and molecular collisions is explored. The effects on molecular collisions of varying the number of molecules per unit of volume and of varying the temperature are studied. The experimental study of the relative rates of effusion of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and sulfur hexafluoride leads to the quantitative relationship among molecular mass, molecular velocity, and absolute temperature. Mechanical models illustrate the experimental observations....
Topics: CHEM Study, chemical education, science education, Sputnik-era curriculum, gas pressure
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 1,081
favorite 0
comment 0
Collaborator: Professor Richard E. Powell, University of California, Berkeley. Produced in cooperation with the Manufacturing Chemists' Association. The film emphasizes that catalysts are typical chemical reactants, being unique only in that catalysts are regenerated during the reaction. It demonstrates and interprets three simple catalyzed reactions: the decomposition of formic acid, using sulfuric acid as catalyst; the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, using pure platinum as catalyst; and...
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 1,030
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A description of the atom that is in accord with quantum mechanics is presented. This description explains the energy levels and line spectrum of the hydrogen atom and furnishes the basis of contemporary theory of chemical bonding. The electron position in the atom is considered in terms of probability, and the meaning of a 1s orbital is clarified with a digital computer plot, two analogies, and animation. The principal quantum number, n, is introduced together with its relation to energy...
Topics: CHEM Study, chemical education, science education, Sputnik-era curriculum, quantum mechanics
Community Video
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 939
favorite 2
comment 0
The role of molecular structure in determining biological activity is shown. The correlation of the structure of sulfanilamide with that of a vitamin essential for bacterial growth leads to a more general investigation of the biochemical nature of growth. Paper chromatography is used to separate some of the material found in chromosomes. It is proposed that compounds similar to those found in chromosomes may stop cell division and thus be useful in controlling cancer. The effect and mechanism...
Topics: CHEM Study, chemical education, science education, Sputnik-era curriculum, biochemistry
Community Video
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 900
favorite 2
comment 0
A study of the hydrolysis of the ester, methyl benzoate, shows that the discovery of a reaction mechanism includes a determination of the chemical equation, the structures of the reactants and products, the fate of each atom of the reactants, and the structures of the intermediate molecules. The concepts of bond polarity and the effect of varying the structure of the ester also provide valuable hints. The use of oxygen-18 and its detection in a mass spectrometer provide critical experimental...
Topics: CHEM Study, chemical education, science education, Sputnik-era curriculum, organic chemistry
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 877
favorite 2
comment 0
Proton-donor-acceptor theory is used to interpret the experimental behavior of acid-base indicators. Experiments and animation show the effects on indicators of changing acidity. Equilibrium constants of four indicators are determined and the indicators arranged in order of decreasing acid strength. The competition among bases for protons is shown by mixing the indicators and showing that each changes color at different total acidity.
Topics: CHEM Study, chemical education, science education, Sputnik-era curriculum, acid, base
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 858
favorite 2
comment 1
Observations of two spheres suspended from the terminals of a high voltage generator remind us of the principles that opposite charges attract, like charges repel, and uncharged bodies have no electric interaction. To determine quantitatively the effect of distance on electric force, a sensitive balance measures the force between two charged spheres. The distance is varied and the electric force is calculated from changes in balance readings. A graph of electric force against distance suggests...
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Community Video
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 745
favorite 0
comment 0
Laboratory experiments, molecular models, and animation show details of the infrared light absorption process and its relation to molecular properties. The concept of natural vibrational frequencies in molecules is emphasized. The use of the infrared spectrum in identifying molecules and determining their molecular structure is demonstrated. Collaborators: Professor Bryce Crawford, Jr., and Dr. John Overend, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Wardâs Volume 18, CHEM Study #4142, 23 minutes....
Topics: CHEM Study, chemical education, science education, Sputnik-era curriculum, spectroscopy
Community Video
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 725
favorite 0
comment 0
Nitric acid acts as an acid in the manufacture of chemical fertilizers; it acts as a base in the manufacture of nitro compounds; it acts as an oxidizing agent in many systems. In making the fertilizer ammonium nitrate from nitric acid, it is necessary to neutralize the acidity of HNO3. This is accomplished by addition of NH3. In nitration reactions, such as the making of nitrobenzene, nitric acid is made to act as a base in the presence of sulfuric acid and forms nitronium ion which is the...
Topics: CHEM Study, nitric acid, chemical manufacturing, science education, Sputnik-era education,...
CHEMStudy
by Roberts, Eugene
texts
eye 723
favorite 0
comment 0
Topic: Slide-rule
Community Video
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 611
favorite 0
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Vanadium is studied as a typical transition element. The different oxidation states of vanadium and the corresponding colors are observed and then identified by means of a quantitative titration of vanadium (II) solution with cerium (IV) solution. The oxidation states and the observed colors are correlated with the electronic structures using an orbital board. The reaction with hydroxide ion and the formation of complex ions containing vanadium in different oxidation states are demonstrated....
Topics: CHEM Study, chemical education, science education, Sputnik-era curriculum, vanadium, transition...
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 600
favorite 0
comment 0
Many properties of matter such as fluidity, vaporization and rates of chemical reactions, indicate that molecular motion must be occurring, and that the freedom of motion increases in going from the solid to the liquid to the gaseous state. The concepts of translational, rotational, and vibrational molecular motions allow the interpretation of the observed properties. The use of animation and dynamic models makes clear how the observed properties depend on the types of motion occurring at the...
Community Video
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 537
favorite 0
comment 0
Many properties of matter such as fluidity, vaporization and rates of chemical reactions indicate that molecular motion must be occurring and that the freedom of motion increases in going from the solid to the liquid to the gaseous state. The concepts of translational, rotational, and vibrational molecular motions allow the interpretation of the observed properties. The use of animation and dynamic models makes clear how the observed properties depend on the types of motion occurring at the...
Topics: CHEM Study, chemical education, science education, Sputnik-era curriculum, molecular motion
CHEMStudy
by Roberts, Eugene; Chemical Education Material Study
texts
eye 514
favorite 1
comment 0
Topics: Exponential functions, Mathematical notation, Programmed instruction
CHEM Study Films
movies
eye 478
favorite 1
comment 0
Professor Pimentel emphasizes the advantages of the quantum mechanical model of the atom, as presented in the classroom film, over the planetary model. He discusses the relationship of quantum number to the spatial distribution of the electron in the one-electron atom. He then considers the screening effect of electrons at lower energy levels upon those at higher energy levels, and the relationship of the quantum states of the electrons to the periodic table.
Professor Campbell shows some chemical reactions and discusses them in terms of the concepts presented in the CHEM Study film. These concepts include collisions, orientation of the colliding molecules, and activation energy. The effect of concentration on reaction rate and the idea of the rate-determining step are demonstrated using the oxygen-dextrose-methylene blue system. The role of activation energy in breaking or weakening bonds of the reacting molecules is related to the reaction 2H2 +...
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 436
favorite 0
comment 0
Professor Pimentel amplifies the idea that attraction of one or more electrons for two or more nuclei accounts for bond formation. The virial theorem is presented and used to show that the lowering of the electron's total energy in bond formation can only occur through a lowering of its potential energy by being simultaneously near two or more nuclei. This principle is shown to apply equally well to covalent, ionic, and other types of bonding.
Topics: chemistry, CHEM Study Film, George Pimentel
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 431
favorite 0
comment 0
Professor Campbell demonstrates the usefulness of the electron energy level chart and points out that ionization energy data provide some of the important evidence upon which the chart is based. In a novel way he shows the familiar flame test for sodium and uses the energy level chart to identify the energy change responsible for the yellow color.
CHEM Study Films
movies
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Professor Campbell explores relationships between structure and properties found in biochemical systems. He relates the stiffness of plant tissue, which is primarily carbohydrate, to the abundance of hydrogen bonds between molecules. He contrasts this with the suppleness and relative scarcity of hydrogen bonds between the protein molecules of which animal tissue is largely composed.
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 414
favorite 0
comment 0
Professor Rapoport discusses the importance to the organic chemist of general principles which apply to chemistry as a whole. He stresses the importance of understanding the relationship between structure and properties and of understanding reaction mechanisms. He reviews some of the means that have been used by organic chemists to determine mechanisms, such as substitution of tracer isotopes and the modification of molecular shapes. These techniques are utilized in the classroom film.
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 392
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A catalyst is shown to be a substance which speeds a reaction by providing a new reaction mechanism to an already possible reaction. The new mechanism ordinarily has a low activation energy. The catalyst reacts, then is regenerated at a later stage of the mechanism. Science Consultant: Professor Richard E. Powell, University of California, Berkeley. Wardâs Volume 3, CHEM Study #4127, 17 minutes. In color, 1989.
Topics: CHEM Study, chemical education, science education, Sputnik-era curriculum, catalyst
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 385
favorite 1
comment 0
Does life exist anywhere else in the Universe besides on our planet? This question was posed as the Viking Spacecraft blasted off from Earth to continue the scientific exploration of Mars. The Viking Lander, millions of miles from the Earth, performs by remote control, chemical experiments which can determine the presence or absence of life by searching for the exponential "population explosion" that accompanies uncontrolled growth processes. Thus, the film shows how conventional...
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 367
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This film was not made to be shown to students. It is a lecture by Prof. George G. Pimentel designed for teachers to reinforce background materials related to films #4148 and #4149 in the Film and Course Teachers Guides.
Topics: chemistry, CHEM Study Film, George Pimentel
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 355
favorite 0
comment 0
The treatment of equilibrium in CHEM Study is characterized by emphasis on the quantitative aspects and on the dynamic microscopic processes involved. Professor Pimentel demonstrates that in order to explain equilibrium, one needs not only the idea of a tendency toward minimum potential energy, but also the idea of a tendency, implemented by temperature, toward greater randomness.
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 283
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Professor Pimentel emphasizes the importance of reaction rate in determining the utility of chemical reactions. The reaction H2 + I2 -> 2HI is discussed in terms of activation energy and collision geometry. The reaction 4HBr + 02 2H20 + 2Br2 is shown to proceed by a series of two- particle collisions. The reaction 21 —» I2 is used as an example of a reaction in which a third particle must be involved in the collision to carry off the energy, or an alternate reaction path must be provided....
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 283
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comment 0
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 276
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Using chromium as an example, Professor Campbell shows that the transition metals are characterized by valence electrons in closely spaced energy levels. He then comments upon the difference in color between aqueous chromium nitrate solution and aqueous chromium chloride solution. The color difference and the incomplete precipitation of chloride from the latter solution is related to the formation of complex ions.
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 198
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why do we know more today than we did yesterday? One reason is that scientists engage in research. The excitement of discovering new knowledge through research is illustrated by studying the bond strength of gaseous titanium monosulfide. Gaseous TiS molecules as well as gaseous titanium and sulfur atoms are produced by the vaporization of the high melting crystalline titanium monosulfide at temperatures near 2000°K. The procedures for producing and measuring temperatures in this region are...
Topics: CHEM Study, Sputnik-era curriculum, chemical education, science education
CHEM Study Films
by CHEM Study, College of Chemistry, U.C. Berkeley
movies
eye 145
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In-service training for chemistry teachers.